What is the capital of Bolivia?
The official capital of Bolivia is the city of Sucre, which is the seat of its judicial system. However, the administrative capital is the larger city of La Paz, located high in the mountains. Although La Paz's population is technically lower than another city, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, the greater metropolitan area of La Paz contains more people than anywhere else in Bolivia, with more than two million residents.
What is the total population of Bolivia?
Bolivia's population is estimated to be more than 10 million people, perhaps even closer to 11 million. Several million of these are concentrated in a number of metropolitan areas like La Paz and Santa Cruz de la Sierra, but there is also a huge rural culture made up primarily of indigenous farmers.
What languages are spoken in Bolivia?
Several dozen languages are spoken in Bolivia, including at least thirty indigenous tongues and several European ones. The various indigenous languages, mainly Quechua and Aymara, are all considered to be official alongside Spanish, which is the nation's most widely-spoken language.
What is the national religion in Bolivia?
The vast majority (about 95%) of Bolivians are Roman Catholic, with Protestant Christians making up most of the remainder. Native spiritual traditions are frequently practiced alongside the colonial Catholic religion, however.
What is the form of government in Bolivia?
Bolivia (full name: the Plurinational State of Bolivia) has been a presidential republic for the last thirty years, following a long period of wars, revolution, and unrest. Despite some corruption and forced retirements, no recent leader has been able to seize permanent power and become a dictator, and power has largely been transferred peacefully from one president to the next. The current president, Evo Morales, is the first leader to have been elected from Bolivia's majority population of indigenous peoples.
What countries border Bolivia?
Bolivia is a landlocked country, bordered by Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Peru. Its ally Peru leases a small section of coastal land to Bolivia, but a port or naval base has yet to be built there.
How big is Bolivia?
Bolivia is found in the central and western part of South America, covering a rugged, mountainous area. Its size has changed many times since it was first liberated from Spanish rule by Antonio José de Sucre and the legendary Simón Bolívar. The country’s shape was usually altered through the loss of territories while at war with neighboring countries (most notably, Bolivia's coastal region was lost to Chile, causing it to become landlocked). Today, the country has been measured at around 1,098,580 square kilometers, or about 424,160 square miles.
Who was Simón Bolívar?
Simón Bolívar was an extremely important political figure and legendary revolutionary leader in South America. He is widely regarded to be the single person most responsible for the many successful South American revolts that ultimately pushed colonial Spain out of the continent. Under the Spanish, the territory that is now Bolivia was part of what was called "Upper Peru" (Alto Perú). It was freed, along with present-day Peru, as part of a rebellion led by Simón Bolívar's friend Antonio José de Sucre and aided by Bolívar himself. The new country was called Bolivia in honor of South America's hero.
What are Bolivia's main industries?
Bolivia is rich in minerals, and built up a huge industry in the nineteenth century surrounding the production of tin. Natural gas and agriculture form the other important exports. During the 1980s, Bolivia became a major source of illegal cocaine, but this was soon cracked down on and reduced dramatically. Bolivia's tourist industry is one of its fastest-growing revenue streams, as more and more foreign visitors arrive to catch a glimpse of Salar de Uyuni, the country's famous salt flat.
What is Salar de Uyuni?
Salar de Uyuni is the world's largest salt flat and one of its most unique locations. A thick crust of salt, which has formed over an ancient briny lake in the mountains, supports many special forms of wildlife and provides an impressive landscape. During seasonal floods, it becomes the world's largest mirror, reflecting the skies from its perfectly flat surface. These properties make it one of the best places in the world to help calibrate satellites, and it has been used for this purpose many times. It also contains an estimated 50-70% of the world's lithium reserves, although the Bolivian government has been cautious to allow mining due to environmental and social concerns.
What is the capital of South Korea?
South Korea's capital is the city of Seoul. With as many as 10 million people, it is more than three times as large as North Korea's capital and is growing at a phenomenal rate.
What is the total population of South Korea?
South Korea is estimated to be home to nearly 49 million people.
How big is South Korea?
South Korea takes up around 99,720 square kilometers (or about 38,500 square miles), roughly the size of the U.S. state of Indiana.
What countries border South Korea?
South Korea is bordered only by North Korea, and the two share the most heavily fortified border in the world along the 38th Parallel. Mainland China and Japan are also relatively close to the South Korean coastlines.
What languages are spoken in South Korea?
South Korea is an overwhelmingly homogenous nation both ethnically and linguistically. Nearly all of its citizens speak Korean, a language they share with the North Koreans. English is the most popular second language and is taught widely in schools.
What is the national religion in South Korea?
South Korea grants religious freedom and has no national religion, although Buddhism and Christianity are both powerful presences. Traditional beliefs such as Confucianism have few exclusive practitioners but are known to form a strong cultural basis for their society. Currently, a slight majority of South Koreans do not consider themselves to be religious at all, but religious devotion of all kinds still has a stronger presence there than in many other East Asian countries. Religion in South Korea is associated with progress and nationalism, and many religions that lose adherents or remain stagnant worldwide can find themselves growing in South Korea (such is the case with Roman Catholicism). South Korea is also a thriving center of several newer religions that combine the spiritual ideas of older faiths, such as the Cheondoist or “Heavenly Way” philosophy.
What is the form of government in South Korea?
South Korea (officially called the Republic of Korea) is a constitutional democracy. It has supposedly always been this way, but in reality it has been ruled by a series of military authoritarians for most of its history. However, pro-freedom activists were able to make continual gains over the decades, and South Korea has been a legitimate democracy since the late 1980s. Their current head of state is President Lee Myung-bak, and a former Foreign Minister, Ban Ki-moon, is now the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Why is there a North and a South Korea?
Korea was once a unified kingdom until it was split in two in 1945, with the northern half to be administered by the Soviet Union and the southern half by the United States. Japan had brutally occupied the country since 1910, but with its defeat by Allied forces after World War II, there was some disagreement as to what new direction the country would take. The Soviet Union and the U.S. were already beginning to grow suspicious of one another, and each set up a different government in their respective halves of the Korean Peninsula. Although the ultimate goal was supposed to be unification, it proved to be impossible to reconcile the two states. Eventually the communist regime in North Korea, helped by the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, invaded the South. This sparked the Korean War and put an end to any hopes of creating a single, unified Korea.
What was the Korean War?
The Korean War officially started when North Korean forces invaded South Korea in 1950, although tensions had been building for several years. The Korean War was a proxy war, meaning that both sides were supported and encouraged by outside powers. This was the first major military conflict in the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union (during which neither of these world powers would confront one another directly). Although the fighting lasted for three years and killed several million people, there was ultimately little change in the territorial boundaries. An armistice, signed in 1953, did not officially end the war but did put an end to the military battles. As of now, both North Korea and South Korea believe that the Korean Peninsula must be unified under their own rule, and the situation remains tense.
What is the capital of North Korea?
The capital of North Korea is Pyongyang, its largest city. With more than 3 million residents, it is the default center of activity in the northern half of the Korean Peninsula.
What is the total population of North Korea?
Current estimates place the population at around 24.5 million people.
How big is North Korea?
North Korea takes up approximately 120,540 square kilometers, or about 46,540 square miles.
What countries border North Korea?
North Korea is bordered by China and South Korea, as well as a small portion of Russia. The border it shares with South Korea is referred to as the Korean Demilitarized Zone.
What is the Korean Demilitarized Zone?
The border between North and South Korea, the Korean Demilitarized Zone, is the most heavily guarded border in the world. Because there has never been a peace treaty, the Korean War that took place between North and South Korea has never officially ended, and soldiers on both sides of the Korean DMZ are constantly on the lookout for an attack. Although full-scale war has yet to break out again, the Korean DMZ is the site of numerous incidents between the two nations. Both North Korea and South Korea firmly believe that one day they will defeat the other and reunify the Korean Peninsula, and so relations along the border remain highly tense.
What is the form of government in North Korea?
North Korea (full name: the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) is widely believed to be a communist dictatorship under the control of Chairman, General Secretary, and Supreme Commander Kim Jong-il. Others hold positions of power within the government, but in practice Kim Jong-il wields complete control over North Korea. Although he is the current leader, Kim Jong-il is not the President of the country, as the title of "Eternal President of the Republic" was given to his deceased father, Kim Il-sung.
Who was Kim Il-sung?
Kim Il-sung, often referred to as "Great Leader" by the North Korean government, was appointed by Soviet leaders to head the Communist Party in North Korea after the Japanese were ejected following their defeat in World War II. This was a tenuous time in Korea's history, characterized by the simultaneous establishment of puppet regimes in the North and the South by the Soviet Union and the United States, respectively. The Korean War that followed did not resolve the separation, and the two countries remain official enemies to this day. Kim Il-sung was given full control over the regime and proceeded to build an elaborate cult of personality around himself as the one and only leader of the nation. Even though he died in 1994, he is still systematically worshipped by most North Koreans.
What is the national religion in North Korea?
North Korea was traditionally a mostly Buddhist country, but much was changed during the upheavals in the earlier half of the twentieth century. Today, North Korea claims to grant its citizens religious freedom, although many human rights groups dispute this, as all the religious organizations in the country are sponsored by the state. Currently, it is estimated that the majority of North Koreans practice no religion, although some have theorized that the popular political principles of juche and songun have religious aspects to them.
What are juche and songun?
Juche is a political theory revolving around the idea that a communist country should be independent and completely self-reliant. It was invented and championed by Kim Il-sung and remains one of the most important guiding principles of the North Korean people, although outsiders have criticized it as a simple ideology meant only to distinguish Kim Il-sung from other communist leaders such as Mao Zedong. Songun is often held up as current leader Kim Jong-il's attempt to define his own philosophy, and it describes the idea that the military of North Korea should be taken care of before any of the other needs of its citizens. While songun is thoroughly put into practice, many have pointed out that juche is praised but not actually followed, as North Korea is heavily reliant on foreign aid in the wake of the Arduous March.
What is the Arduous March?
The Arduous March, also called the March of Tribulation, is a severe famine that debilitated North Korea in the early 1990s and remains ongoing. It was caused by unfortunate circumstances (floods and droughts) but was exacerbated by the collapse of the Soviet Union, which had been one of North Korea's most important economic suppliers. Many of the true outcomes of this famine are not known, but it is estimated that millions have died and countless citizens will suffer long-term health effects. North Korea has accepted varying levels of food aid from international sources since 1995.
How big is Kazakhstan?
Kazakhstan is 2,724,900 square kilometers, or 1,052,085 square miles. It is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest overall. Kazakhstan is more or less the same size as all of Western Europe put together.
What countries border Kazakhstan?
Kazakhstan is bordered by China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, but they are within a few dozen miles of each other.
On what continent is Kazakhstan located?
Kazakhstan technically spans two continents, with its main body being located in Asia and a small eastern portion in Europe.
What is the population of Kazakhstan?
Approximately 15.5 million people.
What is the national religion in Kazakhstan?
Kazakhstan has no national religion, and people of all faiths are allowed to worship freely. The largest plurality is Muslim at close to fifty percent, with those of the Russian Orthodox Christian faith making up a large piece of the remainder.
What is the form of government in Kazakhstan?
Kazakhstan is a presidential republic, although President Nursultan Nazarbayev has been in power for the last twenty years and has a somewhat authoritarian rule over the country. Elections in Kazakhstan have been accused of being rigged, but it is unlikely that serious reform will be occurring any time soon. The government in Kazakhstan has encouraged free trade and good relations with its neighbors and all other nations, resulting in steadily rising levels of prosperity.
What is the capital of Kazakhstan?
The previous capital was Kazakhstan's largest city, which has undergone several name changes but is now called Almaty. Upon achieving independence, the country decided to move its capital due to earthquake risk, security and expansion concerns. Kazakhstan's capital is now its second-largest city, Astana, located in the center of the Kazakh Steppe.
What is the Kazakh Steppe?
The Kazakh Steppe is a huge savanna in the north of the country, encompassing miles upon miles of open territory populated with native shrubs and grasses. Kazakhstan's new capital, Astana, is located here. The region was of special interest to the USSR during the 1950s, who used it to test nuclear weapons and to build the Baikonur Cosmodrome.
What is the Baikonur Cosmodrome?
The Baikonur Cosmodrome is a space launch facility founded by the Russians on the steppes of Kazakhstan. It is one of the largest in the world, and has the distinction of being the jumping-off point of several important space missions, such as the launch of Sputnik 1 and Yuri Gagarin's orbital flight (the first manned voyage into space). The nation of Kazakhstan continues to lease the area to Russia, where the Baikonur Cosmodrome is still under operation.
What languages are spoken in Kazakhstan?
Nearly two-thirds of the population speaks Kazakh, one of the official languages. The other is Russian, which is spoken by almost everyone. Kazakhstan is a country with a rich variety of different ethnicities, in many cases due to forced emigration that occurred during the years of the USSR. A large number of ethnic Russians remain within Kazakhstan, having arrived as part of the Virgin Lands Campaign.
What was the Virgin Lands Campaign?
The Virgin Lands Campaign was an attempt to open up previously uncultivated land to agricultural production, set in motion by Nikita Khrushchev in 1954. As Kazakhstan was then a part of the USSR, a large area of its steppe was subjected to aggressive grain farming by Russian and Ukrainian immigrants. While successful at first, the unsustainable farming techniques eventually resulted in great losses. However, Kazakhstan is today an agriculturally prosperous nation that uses much of the same land initially developed during the Virgin Lands Campaign.
When did Kazakhstan declare independence?
Kazakhstan was the last country to declare independence from the Soviet Union, doing so on December 16th of 1991.
Ref Map : Kazakhstan Map
What is the capital of Turkey?
Who is the President of Turkey?
Who is the Prime Minister of Turkey?
Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Where is Turkey located? Is Turkey part of Europe or Asia?
Turkey is located in western Asia and eastern Europe, and is close to Africa. The Bosporus or Bosphorus is one of the Turkish Straits, which divides Europe from Asia. West of the Bosphorus is Europe, while east of the Bosphorus is Asia. Turkey's location is considered to be highly strategic politically, as they have control of the straits between the Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas.
What countries border Turkey?
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Syria
What was the Ottoman Empire?
The Ottoman Empire was a large territory across North Africa, western Asia, and eastern Europe that lasted from July 27, 1299 to October 29, 1923. The capital of the Ottoman Empire was Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey). The Empire was the strongest power in the entire region, quickly conquering surrounding areas, and planning to conquer Rome, the capital of the West. The Ottoman Empire’s huge size contributed to its fall, and it was replaced with the Republic of Turkey in 1923, though its territory was only a portion of the Ottoman Empire.
When was Turkey founded?
The modern Republic of Turkey was founded on October 29, 1923, which is now celebrated as Republic Day, Turkey’s national holiday. Mustafa Kemal was the first president of the Republic of Turkey, and took on the name Atatürk, meaning “father of the Turks.” Atatürk is considered a national hero, for his service helping Turkey undergo social, legal, and political reforms.
Is Turkey a member of the United Nations or NATO?
Yes, Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and NATO in 1952.
What is the status of Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea?
Turkey has claimed Cyprus as a territory, but this matter is still in dispute with Greece. Turkey’s claims to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus are not recognized by the United Nations.
What are Turkey’s major cities?
- Ankara (capital)
Does Turkey have an official religion?
No, but an overwhelming majority of Turkey’s population is Muslim, mostly Sunni.
What is the official language of Turkey?
Turkish is the official language of Turkey, but Kurdish is spoken by Kurds, and Zazaki languages are spoken by the Zazas.
Who are the Kurds?
Kurds are an indigenous people of the Middle East, in the region called Kurdistan. Kurdistan is located in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey, though the Kurdish Diaspora brought Kurds to several other countries as well. Kurds speak Kurdish, and comprise about 20% of Turkey’s population. They are the 4th largest ethnic group in the Middle East.
Who are the Zaza people?
Zaza are another indigenous group of the Middle East, located primarily in the Anatolian region of eastern Turkey. Some speakers of the Zaza languages consider themselves Kurds.
Where is Anatolia?
Anatolia is the farthest west portion of Asia, and a region of eastern Turkey.
Are turkeys (the birds) named after Turkey the country?
Yes. Though origins of the name are not fully known, many historians believe that when Europeans first saw turkeys in America, they believed the birds were a type of guineafowl, which were imported into Europe via Turkey (from Africa). Thus, they associated the birds with Turkey. They also believed they were in the far East, adding to the belief that the birds were exotic eastern animals.
Where do people believe Noah's ark landed?
Some people believe Noah's ark landed at Mount Ararat, on Mount Masis which is the highest peak of the Ararat Mountains. Mount Ararat is located in far eastern Turkey.
Ref : Turkey Map
What is the capital of Mongolia?
Where is Mongolia located?
Northern Asia (between Russia and China)
How big is Mongolia?
1,565,000 square kilometers or 604,250 square miles
What is the population of Mongolia?
About 3 million
What type of government does Mongolia have?
What countries border Mongolia?
Russia and China. Kazakhstan's border is also very close to Mongolia, but they do not share borders. Mongolia is landlocked, meaning it does not border any bodies of water.
When was Mongolia formed?
Mongolia was formed as the Hunnic Empire in 209 BC.
The Mongol Empire formed during the 13th and 14th centuries, starting in 1206.
What was the Mongol Empire?
The Mongol Empire was formed when Genghis Khan (sometimes spelled Chinggis Khaan, born Borjigin Temüjin) unified nomadic tribes of the region and began the invasion and conquest of surrounding areas. The Mongol Empire was eventually the largest contiguous empire in the history of the world, once occupying 22% of the earth's land, and 100 million people.
Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan, set up the Yuan Dynasty after Genghis Khan's death, in what is now China. A century later, the Yuan Dynasty became the Ming Dynasty when Ming armies took control of the area.
What caused the fall of the Mongol Empire?
Several factors caused the fall of the Mongol Empire, including disunity between the descendents of Genghis Khan, which led to a civil war (called the Berke-Hulagu war). The war was caused, in part, by religious differences and territorial disputes between the smaller divisions of the Empire. Another factor leading to the fall of the Mongol Empire was the Black death.
When did Mongolia achieve independence?
Mongolia won independence from China on July 11, 1921 with help from the Soviet Union, who created a communist regime in the country. In the 1990s, there was a democratic revolution in Mongolia, leading to a new constitution in 1992.
What is the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region?
Inner Mongolia is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, established in 1947. Chinese and Mongolian languages are both spoken. More ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region than in Mongolia
How is Mongolia divided?
There are 21 provinces (called aimag or aygmuud) and 1 municipality (called khot), which is the capital in Ulaanbaatar.
Who is the President of Mongolia?
Who is the Prime Minister of Mongolia?
What language do Mongolians speak?
The official language is Khalkha Mongolian, but, and Mongolic Khamnigan, Kazakh, Tuvan, and dialects of Oirat and Buryat are spoken around the country.
How much of Mongolia's population is nomadic?
Around 30% of the Mongolian population is nomadic or semi-nomadic.
How do the nomadic people of Mongolia live?
Nomadic herding families usually live in a “ger,” or a yurt, which is a white tent made with felt. Gers are easy to set up or take down, for when the family is ready to move again. The door of the ger always points to the south.
Some gers are even set up in cities, with fences around them to keep the animals. Families with this set-up sometimes live in a house during summer and a ger during winter, since they are easier to heat.
What are the physical features of Mongolia?
Eastern Mongolia is the Mountain Forest Steppe region where the Siberian forests meet the central Asian steppe. The steppes are made up of slopes and grasslands, where Mongolian herders travel with their sheep, goats, cows, camels. Southern Mongolia has the Gobi desert region, and northern Mongolia is covered with conifer forests.
In the west are the Altai Mountains, while the Khangai Mountains traverse central Mongolia.The major river system in Mongolia is the Selenge.
Not far from the capital in Ulaanbaatar is the world's oldest protected area, called Bogdkhan, was first established in 1778.
Ref : Mongolia Map
What is the complete name of Russia?
Russian Federation (Rossiyskaya Federatsiya)
What type of government does Russia have?
Federal semi-presidential Republic
Who is Russia's current president?
Who is Russia's current prime minister?
What is the capital of Russia?
Where is Russia located?
Northern Asia or far eastern Europe (see: Is Russia in Europe or Asia?)
What oceans and seas border Russia?
- Arctic Ocean
- North Atlantic Ocean
- Black Sea
- Caspian Sea
What countries share borders with Russia?
- People's Republic of China
- North Korea
- Japan (by the Sea of Okhotsk)
- United States (by the Bering Strait)
How big is Russia?
17,098,242 square kilometers
Russia is the largest country in the world at almost 2x the size of the United States, and 1/8 of the Earth's inhabited land
What are Russia's administrative divisions?
Russia contains 83 federal subjects which have equal representation, but vary in levels of autonomy.
The types of divisions are: oblasts (provinces), republics, krais (territories), autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts), autonomous oblast, and federal cities.
Oblasts (provinces) – 46
- Nizhny Novgorod
Republics – 21
Somewhat autonomous areas of non-Russian ethnicity, have the right to establish an official language and constitution
- Mari El
- North Ossetia-Alania
- Sakha (Yakutia)
Krais (territories) – 9
Similar to oblasts, but different designation for historical reasons
Autonomous orkrugs (districts) – 4
Mostly a subordinate part of a krai or oblast
Autonomous oblast – 1
- Jewish Autonomous Oblast
Federal cities – 2
- St. Petersburg
How many time zones does Russia span?
What is the official language of Russia?
Russian is the official language of Russia, but some regions of Russia have an additional official language. Russian is also one of the 6 official languages of the United Nations
Other official languages in Russia:
What alphabet does Russia use?
The Russian alphabet, which is modified Cyrillic and has 33 letters
What are the 5 largest cities in Russia?
- Saint Petersburg
What modern-day countries were in the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)?
The area included in the USSR is now divided into 15 independent countries.
Republics of the Soviet Union:
All of the former Soviet Union countries except the Baltic states (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) and Georgia are now part of the regional organization, the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Ref : Russia Map
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